Originally, Bolków was a settlement, which after years expanded into a castle-suburbium. Next, after granting it civic rights the town derived profits on the revived trade. In 1312, the Duke Bernard Świdnicki gave the town the name of Bolków to commemorate his deceased father Bolko I, the Severe. Thanks to the kindness of rulers and to the favourable location, the town developed fast, having soon become a trade and craft centre. In 1392, Bolków fell under the rule of Bohemia. In the early 16th c., the town started to be ruled by Habsburgs. In the 16th and 17th century, Bolków is hit by many disasters, which slowed down the development of the town for many years. It was floods, fires, epidemics, and even a strong earthquake in 1590. Also Thirty Years’ War was a series of disasters and misfortune for the town, apart from material losses, directly after the war the number of citizens amounted to as few as 100 persons. In 1704, Bolków was purchased by the order of Cistercians from Krzeszów, who lost it as a result of secularization in 1810. During that period, almost the whole of Silesia became the property of Prussia. In the 19th c., thanks to the family of Kramsts, who settled here, it became strong linen production and trade centre. During the WWII, Nazis created in Bolków one of Gross-Rosen concentration camps. The prisoners worked in an aviation plant, and also at building of underground tunnels. The victims are commemorated by the monument on Ryszard’s Hill. The town survived the war turmoil almost untouched, and the Poles who came here from various regions of the country found home in Bolków.